In AfricaDoyin Oluwole, Khama Rogo, Mickey Chopra, Genevieve Begkoyian, Joy LawnIV152 Opportunities for Africa’s NewbornsIntroductionEvery year, 1.16 million babies die in Africa. However, about 800,000 newborn lives could be saved, and a similar number of maternal and child deaths could be spared if essential interventions reached 90 per cent of women and babies. Many of these interventions are already part of the health policies of almost all African countries, inserted in programs that already exist in continuous health care and have implementation strategies already in place.
The cost of implementing policies
is affordable and represents approximately another $ 1.39 per capita than is already being spent.1 The reason why so many babies and so many mothers and children die each year is not a lack of knowledge or policies, but it is rather our collective inability to implement these interventions, to achieve high coverage and to reach the poor. A recent focus of attention on the issue of regional slow progress towards the 4th objective of the Millennium
- Development Goals (child survival) and the 5th objective ( especially in Africa, has caused greater attention to be paid to improving essential interventions for maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH). Progress is
- hampered by cross-cutting difficulties, some of which go beyond the scope of newborn health and even of SMNI.
- These limitations are well described2 particularly with regard to human resources for health crisis situations and the difficulties in financing health care on a continent where governments
16 countries spend less than $ 5 per capita on health, and those in 11 other countries spend less. $ 10 per capita.3 This section will describe important regional policy frameworks, highlighting specific opportunities to save newborns’ lives, and how to address their health can be a catalyst for their integration into MNCH. Good news arrives from Africa, which is why we highlight some countries that are making progress towards lower neonatal mortality rates (TMN), despite their low Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and we analyze principles that can serve as a lesson.
The final part of the Section analyzes policy measures and programs to accelerate actions, including the resolution of the issue of human resources and SMNI financing. There are commitments made to regional policies. Africa does not suffer from a lack of policies. There are many fundamental policies in place, both general, such as health sector reform, and specific, such as the prevention of mother-to-child vertical HIV transmission (PMTCT).
To reduce the number of maternal
neonatal and child deaths, and accelerate the actions that will lead to the fulfillment of the 4th and 5th Millennium Development Goals, there are two main regional political frameworks, both created under the African Union’s aegis: • The Roadmap for accelerating progress towards the Millennium Development Goals for maternal and child health in Africa – “Roadmap” (Box IV.1)
Regional Task Force for Maternal, Newborn and Child HealthWhat is new? • Highlight for the inseparable pair made up of the mother and the newborn -born. Consensus on plans for the next decade, including long-term commitment and opportunities to take advantage of the resources of all partners. Focus on two levels to have a significant effect: specialized assistance in health services and demand creation at community level.
- The Regional Strategy for Child Survival (Box IV.2) The common thread of these two frameworks is the newborn. The health of newborns can represent the “bridge” that
- connects maternal health with children’s health, but which is easily lost sight of in the midst of actions that strive solely for one goal or another and for its implementation.
- Ideally, these political frameworks will be based on a single vision of NMES,
both in each country and at the regional level. The constitution of the MNCH African Regional Task Force, with the secretariat located in the WHO African regional office, is a measure that fills us with hope to achieve that objective (see Introduction, page 4). The Roadmap for accelerating progress towards the 4th and of the 5th objectives of the ODMem Africa The Roadmap resulted in the establishment of an unprecedented pace of acceptance of policies in all countries, with at least 35 countries starting the process within 2 years.
In many countries, the process was participatory
and multisectoral (Box IV.1). In several countries there has been a very high commitment – in some cases the President himself chaired the national launch of the process. The Roadmap promotes an approach to health care that deals with both supply and demand, by closely monitoring events from home to continued health care in the hospital. (See Section II).
Special attention to emergency obstetric health care and newborns, highlighting specialized care as a process through which a mother and baby are provided with adequate assistance during labor, delivery and delivery. postnatal period, regardless of where the birth takes placeProcess and strategies: Objective 1 Provide special assistance specialized during pregnancy, childbirth and throughout the postnatal period.
- The real test of success will come when you determine whether coverage of essential interventions and packages, especially specialized health care and emergency obstetric care (COE), has increased over the next few years. While
- supply-side problems such as a lack of human resources, infrastructure and medicines are widely accepted, measures
- to increase demand are not well defined in many countries, and the empowerment of the community, as well as information for behavior change, these actions are rarely systematically implemented.
At the moment, most of the national Roadmaps have not yet adequately valued interventions based on evidence that are possible at the community level, especially in relation to newborns. Opportunities for Africa’s Newborns 153TH BOX IV.1 African Roadmap for Accelerating Progress towards the MDGs on Maternal and Newborn Health In 2003, the meeting of the African Regional Task Force on Reproductive Health called on all partners to birth and implement a
Roadmap to accelerate the reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality in Africa, thus proposing the fulfillment of the 4th and 5th MDG objectives. The guiding principles of the Roadmap are: 1. Staged and evidence-based planning and implementation at national level2. Methodology centered on health systems and focused on reducing injustices and inequities3. Partnerships with clear definition of roles to play and respective responsibilities, transparency and accountability, under the direction of the